An apprentice at first generally forms an exaggerated estimate of what he has to learn; it presents to his mind not only a great undertaking, but a kind of mystery, which he fears that he may not be able to master. The next stage is when he has made some progress, and begins to underrate the task before him, and imagine that the main difficulties are past, that he has already mastered all the leading principles of mechanics, which is, after all, but a "small matter." In a third stage an apprentice experiences a return of his first impressions as to the difficulties of his undertaking; he begins to see his calling as one that must involve endless detail, comprehending things which can only be studied in connection with personal experience; he sees "the horizon widen as it recedes," that he has hardly begun the task, instead of having completed it—even despairs of its final accomplishment.Cores expand when heated, and require an allowance in their dimensions the reverse from patterns; this is especially the case when the cores are made upon iron frames. For cylindrical cores less than six inches diameter, or less than two feet long, expansion need not be taken into account by pattern-makers, but for large cores careful calculation is required. The expansion of cores is as the amount of heat imparted to them, and the amount of heat taken up is dependent upon the quantity of metal that may surround the core and its conducting power.